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# Abductive Logic Programming (ALP)

## What is abductive logic programming?

Abductive logic programming (ALP) is a high-level knowledge-representation framework that can be used to solve problems declaratively based on abductive reasoning. It extends normal logic programming by allowing some predicates to be incompletely defined, declared as abducible predicates. Problem solving is affected by deriving hypotheses on these abducible predicates (abductive hypotheses) as solutions of problems to be solved.

These problems can be either observations that need to be explained (as in classical abduction) or goals to be achieved (as in normal logic programming).

There are 3 forms of reasoning:

• Deductive reasoning: An analytical process based on the application of general rules to particular instances, with a concluding result
• Inductive reasoning: Synthetic reasoning which infers the rule from the instance and the result
• Abductive reasoning: Another type of synthetic reasoning, but using rules and results. Also referred to as the “probable adoption of a hypothesis.”

## The syntax of ALP

Abductive logic programs have three components, {\displaystyle \langle P,A,IC\rangle ,}\langle P,A,IC\rangle, where:

• P is a logic program of exactly the same form as in logic programming
• A is a set of predicate names, called the abducible predicates
• IC is a set of first-order classical formulae.

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# Abductive Logic Programming (ALP)

October 14, 2020

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## What is abductive logic programming?

Abductive logic programming (ALP) is a high-level knowledge-representation framework that can be used to solve problems declaratively based on abductive reasoning. It extends normal logic programming by allowing some predicates to be incompletely defined, declared as abducible predicates. Problem solving is affected by deriving hypotheses on these abducible predicates (abductive hypotheses) as solutions of problems to be solved.

These problems can be either observations that need to be explained (as in classical abduction) or goals to be achieved (as in normal logic programming).

There are 3 forms of reasoning:

• Deductive reasoning: An analytical process based on the application of general rules to particular instances, with a concluding result
• Inductive reasoning: Synthetic reasoning which infers the rule from the instance and the result
• Abductive reasoning: Another type of synthetic reasoning, but using rules and results. Also referred to as the “probable adoption of a hypothesis.”

## The syntax of ALP

Abductive logic programs have three components, {\displaystyle \langle P,A,IC\rangle ,}\langle P,A,IC\rangle, where:

• P is a logic program of exactly the same form as in logic programming
• A is a set of predicate names, called the abducible predicates
• IC is a set of first-order classical formulae.